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The main function of the piston is to bear the combustion pressure in the cylinder and to transmit this force to the crankshaft through the piston pin and connecting rod.In addition, the piston and cylinder cover, cylinder wall together constitute the combustion chamber.
The top of the piston is a part of the combustor, so it is often made into different shapes. In gasoline engines, the top of the piston is usually flat or concave, so as to make the combustor compact in structure, small in heat dissipation area and simple in manufacturing process.Crown pistons are often used in two-stroke gasoline engines.The piston crown of diesel engines is often made of various pits.
The piston head is the part above the piston pin seat. The piston head is equipped with piston rings to prevent high temperature and high pressure gas from escaping into the crankcase and oil from entering the combustion chamber.Much of the heat absorbed at the top of the piston also passes through the piston head to the cylinder, which in turn passes through the cooling medium.
The piston head is machined with several ring grooves for installing piston rings. The number of piston rings depends on the sealing requirements, which are related to the engine speed and cylinder pressure.High speed engines have fewer rings than low speed engines, and gasoline engines have fewer rings than diesel engines.The general gasoline engine adopts two gas rings and one oil ring;The diesel engine consists of three gas rings and one oil ring.Low speed diesel engine adopts 3 ~ 4 air rings.In order to reduce friction loss, the height of the belt should be reduced as far as possible, and the number of rings should be reduced under the condition of sealing.
All parts below the piston ring groove are called piston skirts.Its role is to guide the piston in the cylinder for reciprocating motion and under side pressure.When the engine is working, due to the action of gas pressure in the cylinder, the piston will produce bending deformation, after the piston is heated, because the metal in the piston pin, so its expansion is greater than other places.In addition, the piston also produces extrusion deformation under lateral pressure.As a result of the above deformation, the cross section of the skirt of the piston becomes an ellipse with the long axis in the direction of the piston pin.In addition, due to the uneven distribution of temperature and mass along the axial direction of the piston, the thermal expansion of each section is larger at the top and smaller at the bottom.
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